Coal Combustion Products (CCPs)

The generic term used to describe all residues emanating from the combustion of coal


  • Combustion technology (pulverised coal, fluidised bed, etc)
  • Collection technology (bagfilters, electrostatic precipitators)
  • Treatment of flue gases prior to release (desulphurisation, ammoniation, etc)


Significant environmental benefits accrue when CCPs are used:
  • For every ton used to replace cement, the release to the atmosphere of one ton of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, is avoided
  • Incorporation in soil to improve fertility pasteurisation of sewage sludge
  • Immobilisation of toxic elements Counteracting acid mine drainage
  • Rehabilitation of minespoil and slimes dams
  • Backfilling of mines to prevent subsidence

Given South Africa’s abundant coal resources, large quantities of CCPs are produced both in the generation of electricity (ESKOM) and the production of liquid fuel (SASOL).

Brief descriptions of commonly used phrases in the ash industry

Please click on each title to expand the description

Bottom (Course) Ash

Bottom (Course) Ash

Bottom ash is part of the non-combustible residue of combustion in a power station. It accumulates and is collected from the bottom of the boiler and the particle size is larger than fly ash. It has a typical fine sand type feel.

Uses & benefits:

A feedstock for the production of cement clinker and as an aggregate for the manufacture of concrete masonry units (bricks and blocks).

(Image source:

View Ash Merchants
Clinker Ash
Fly Ash (FA)
FGD Product
Fluidised-bed combustion (FBC)
Gasified Ash
© 2024 South African Coal Ash Association. All Rights Reserved.